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Journal of Korean Society Quality Assurance Health Care 1997;4(1): 50.
Published online May 30, 1997.
중환자의 욕창 예방 연구 : 욕창 예방 QI팀을 중심으로
강소영1, 최은경2, 김진주3, 주미정4
1가톨릭 대학교 성모병원 QI 관리실
2가톨릭 대학교 성모병원 외과 중환자실
3가톨릭 대학교 성모병원 신경외과 중환자실
4가톨릭 대학교 성모병원 내과 중환자실
CQI Action Team Approach to Prevent Pressure Sores in Intensive Care Unit of an Acute Hospital Korea
So Young Kang1, Eun-Kyung Choi2, Jin-Ju Kim3, Mi-Jung Ju4
1QI Department of St. Marys Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea
2Surgical Intensive Care Unit, St. Marys Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea
3Department of Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, St. Marys Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea
4Medical Intensive Care Unit, St. Marys Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea
Abstract
Background
A pressure sore was defined as any skin lesion caused by unrelieved pressure and resulting in damage to underlying tissue. The health care institutions in the United States were reported the incident rate of pressure sores ranging from 6 to 14 %. Intensive Care Unit needed highest quality of care has been found over 40% incidence rate of pressure sore. Also, Annual expenditures for the care of pressure sores in patients in the United States have been estimated to be $7.5 billion; furthermore, 50 percent more nursing time is required to care for patients with pressure sore in comparison to the time needed to implement preventive measures against pressure sore formation. However, In Korea, there were little reliable reports, or researches, about incidence rates of pressure sore in health care institution including intensive care unit and about the integrated approach like CQI action team for risk assessment, prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Therefore, this study was to develop pressure sore risk assessment tool and the protocol for prevention of pressure sore formation through CQI action team activities, to monitor incident rate of pressure sore and the length of sore formation for patients at high risk, and to approximately estimate nursing time for sore dressing during research period as the effect of CQI action team. Method : CQI action team in intensive care unit, launched since early 1996, reviewed the literature for the standardized risk assessment tool, developed the pressure sore assessment tool based on the Braden Scale, tested its validity, compared on statistics including incidence rate of pressure sore for patients at high risk. Throughout these activities, CQI action team was developed the protocol, called as St. Marys hospital Intensive Care Unit Pressure Sore Protocol, shifted the emphasis from wound treatment to wound prevention. After applied the protocol to patients at high risk, the incident rate and the period of prevention against pressure development were tested with those for patients who received care before implementation of protocol by Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier Method of Survival Analysis.
Result
The CQI action team found that these was significant difference of in incidence rate of pressure sores between patients at high risk (control group) who received care before implementation of protocol and those (experimental group) who received it after implementation of protocol (p<.05). 25% possibility of pressure sore formation was shown for the patients with 6th hospital day in ICU in control group. In experimental group, the patients with 10th hospital day had 10% possibility of pressure sore. Therefore, there was significant difference(p<.05) in survival rate between two groups. Also, nursing time for dressing on pressure sore in experimental group was decreased as much as 50% of it in control group.
Conclusion
The collaborative team effort led to reduced incidence, increased the length of prevention against pressure sore, and declined nursing care times for sore dressing. However, there have had several suggestions for future study. The preventive care system for pressure sore should be applied to patients at moderate, or low risk throughout continuous CQI team activities based on Bed Sore Indicator Fact Sheet. Hospital-wide supports, such as incentives, would be offered to participants for keeping strong commitment to CQI team. Also, Quality Information System monitoring incidents and estimating cost of poor quality, like workload (full time equivalence) or financial loss, regularly in a hospital has to be developed first for supporting CQI team activities as well as empowering hospital-wide QI implementation. Being several limitations, this study would be one of the report cards for the CQI team activities in intensive care unit of an acute hospital and a trial of quality improvement of health care in Korea.


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